Vitamin K as an Anti-Aging Molecule

Vitamin K  Molecule Ball and Stick Model


is a human vitamin, lipophilic (i.e. soluble in lipids) and therefore hydrophobic (i.e. insoluble in water). It is needed for the posttranslational modification of certain proteins required for blood coagulation.

Normally it is produced by bacteria in the intestines, and dietary deficiency is extremely rare unless the intestines are heavily damaged.

Vitamin K-deficiency may occur by disturbed intestinal uptake (such as would occur in a bile duct obstruction), by therapeutic or accidental intake of vitamin K-antagonists or, very rarely, by nutritional vitamin K-deficiency. As a result of the acquired vitamin K-deficiency, Gla-residues are not or incompletely formed and hence the Gla-proteins are inactive. Lack of control of the three processes mentioned above may lead to the following: risk of uncontrolled and massive bleeding, cartilage calcification and severe malformation of developing bone, or deposition of insoluble calcium salts in the arterial vessel walls.

Discovery of vitamin K
In the late 1920s, Danish scientist Henrik Dam investigated the role of cholesterol by feeding chickens a cholesterol-depleted diet. After several weeks, the animals developed hemorrhages and started bleeding. These defects could not be restored by adding purified cholesterol to the diet. It appeared that - together with the cholesterol - a second compound had been extracted from the food, and this compound was called the coagulation vitamin. The new vitamin received the letter K because the initial discoveries were reported in a German journal, in which it was designated as Koagulations Vitamin.

For several decades the vitamin K-deficient chick model was the only method of quantitating of vitamin K in various foods: the chicks were made vitamin K-deficient and subsequently fed with known amounts of vitamin K-containing food. The extent to which blood coagulation was restored by the diet was taken as a measure for its vitamin K content.

The precise function of vitamin K was not discovered until 1974, when the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor prothrombin was isolated from cows which had received a high dose of the vitamin K-antagonist warfarin. It was shown that normal prothrombin contained 10 unusual amino acid residues which were identified as gamma-carboxyglutamate. Prothrombin isolated from warfarin-treated cows had normal glutamate at the Gla-positions, and was designated as descarboxyprothrombin. The extra carboxyl group in Gla made clear that vitamin K plays a role in a carboxylation reaction during which Glu is converted into Gla.

Discovery of Gla-proteins
At present, the following human Gla-proteins have been characterized to the level of primary structure: the blood coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X, the anticoagulant proteins C and S, and the thrombin-targeting protein Z, the bone Gla-protein osteocalcin, the calcification inhibiting Matrix Gla-protein (MGP), the cell growth regulating growth arrest specific gene 6 protein (Gas6), and the proline-rich Gla-proteins (PRGPs) the function of which is at present unknown. Gas6 can function as a growth factor that activates the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase and stimulates cell proliferation or prevents apoptosis in some cells. In all cases in which their function was known, the presence of the Gla-residues in these proteins turned out to be essential for functional activity.

Gla-proteins are known to occur in a wide variety of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. The venom of a number of Australian snakes acts by activating the human blood clotting system. Remarkably, in some cases activation was accomplished by Gla-proteins capable of binding to phospholipid membranes and subsequent conversion of procoagulant clotting factors into activated ones.

Another interesting class of invertebrate Gla-proteins is formed by the conantokins, produced by the fish-hunting snail Conus geographus. These snails produce a neurotoxin containing a variety of extremely Gla-rich peptides, which are sufficiently powerful to kill an adult human.

Structures of K-vitamins
Vitamin K is a group name for a number of related compounds, which have in common a methylated naphthoquinone ring structure, and which vary in the aliphatic side chain attached at the 3-position (see figure 1). Phylloquinone (also known as vitamin K1) invariably contains in its side chain four isoprenid residues one of which is unsaturated.

Menaquinones have side chains composed of a variable number of unsaturated isoprenoid residues; generally they are designated as MK-n, where n specifies the number of isoprenoids.

It is generally accepted that the naphthoquinone is the functional group, so that the mechanism of action is similar for all K-vitamins. Substantial differences may be expected, however, with respect to intestinal absorption, transport, tissue distribution, and bio-availability. These differences are caused by the different lipophilicity of the various side chains, and by the different food matrices in which they occur.


25 August 2019 --Vitamin K as a Powerful Micronutrient in Aging and Age-Related Diseases: Pros and Cons from Clinical Studies

Vitamin K is a multifunctional micronutrient implicated in age-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Although vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) are described to have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of these diseases, novel roles have emerged for vitamin K, independently of its role in VKDPs carboxylation. Vitamin K has been shown to act as an anti-inflammatory by suppressing nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal transduction and to exert a protective effect against oxidative stress by blocking the generation of reactive oxygen species. Available clinical evidences indicate that a high vitamin K status can exert a protective role in the inflammatory and mineralization processes associated with the onset and progression of age-related diseases. Also, vitamin K involvement as a protective super-micronutrient in aging and ‘inflammaging’ is arising, highlighting its future use in clinical practice. In this review we summarize current knowledge regarding clinical data on vitamin K in skeletal and cardiovascular health, and discuss the potential of vitamin K supplementation as a health benefit. We describe the clinical evidence and explore molecular aspects of vitamin K protective role in aging and age-related diseases, and its involvement as a modulator in the interplay between pathological calcification and inflammation processes. Keywords: vitamin K, vitamin K-dependent proteins, cardiovascular diseases, skeletal health, inflammaging, pathological calcification, inflammation. see full publication

31 March 2016 The Role of Vitamin K in Chronic Aging Diseases: Inflammation, Cardiovascular Disease, and Osteoarthritis

"...Vitamin K is an enzyme cofactor required for the carboxylation of vitamin K dependent proteins, several of which have been implicated in diseases of aging. Inflammation is recognized as a crucial component of many chronic aging diseases and evidence suggests vitamin K has an anti-inflammatory action that is independent of its role as an enzyme co-factor. Vitamin K-dependent proteins and inflammation have been implicated in cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis, which are leading causes of disability and mortality in older adults. The purpose of this review is to summarize observational studies and randomized trials focused on vitamin K status and inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and osteoarthritis. Although mechanistic evidence suggests a protective role for vitamin K in these age-related conditions, the benefit of vitamin K supplementation is controversial because observational data are equivocal and the number of randomized trials is few..." see full publication

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