Piperlongumine--Anti-Aging and Senolytic Properties


Piperlongumine Molecule Ball and Stick Model

Ball and Stick Model for Piperlongumine Molecule

Piperlongumine Molecule (above) Ball-and-stick. For 3D Jsmol File

Chemical formula-- Chemical formula C17H19N

Molar Mass --- 317.341 g·mol−1

About Piperlongumine

Piperlongumine is a natural product constituent of the fruit of the Long pepper (Piper longum), a pepper plant found in southern India and southeast Asia.

Piperlongumine Molecular Structure (Keto form)

Piperlongumine Molecular Struture


Overview of Piperlongumine in Aging and Senescence

Piperlongumine (PL) is one of a few natural products identified to have the ability to selectively kill SCs . Compared to other known senolytic agents, piperlongumine has the advantage of low toxicity, an excellent PK/PD profile, and oral bioavailability. This natural compound has been calling attention of scientific community because of its biological activities such as antitumor, antimetastatic, antiplatelet aggregation and anxiolytic.


Bioavailability of Piperlongumine and search for Analogs

Piperlongumine (PPL) has presented a variety of important pharmacological activities. In recent pharmacokinetics studies in rats, this molecule reached 76.39% of bioavailability. see abstract below: Details of the cooperative binding of piperlongumine with rat serum albumin obtained by spectroscopic and computational analyses


19 November 2016-- Discovery of piperlongumine as a potential novel lead for the development of senolytic agents

Accumulating evidence indicates that senescent cells play an important role in many age-associated diseases. The pharmacological depletion of senescent cells (SCs) with a “senolytic agent”, a small molecule that selectively kills SCs, is a potential novel therapeutic approach for these diseases. Recently, we discovered ABT-263, a potent and highly selective senolytic agent, by screening a library of rationally-selected compounds. With this screening approach, we also identified a second senolytic agent called piperlongumine (PL). PL is a natural product that is reported to have many pharmacological effects, including anti-tumor activity. We show here that PL preferentially killed senescent human WI-38 fibroblasts when senescence was induced by ionizing radiation, replicative exhaustion, or ectopic expression of the oncogene Ras. PL killed SCs by inducing apoptosis, and this process did not require the induction of reactive oxygen species. In addition, we found that PL synergistically killed SCs in combination with ABT-263, and initial structural modifications to PL identified analogs with improved potency and/or selectivity in inducing SC death. Overall, our studies demonstrate that PL is a novel lead for developing senolytic agents. Keywords: piperlongumine, aging, senescent cells, senolytic agents, ABT-263, reactive oxygen species, synergistic effect. see full publication

30 October 2019 Details of the cooperative binding of piperlongumine with rat serum albumin obtained by spectroscopic and computational analyses

"...Piperlongumine (PPL) has presented a variety of important pharmacological activities. In recent pharmacokinetics studies in rats, this molecule reached 76.39% of bioavailability. Although PPL is present in the bloodstream, no information is found on the interaction between PPL and rat serum albumin (RSA), the most abundant protein with the function of transporting endo/exogenous molecules. In this sense, the present study elucidated the mechanism of interaction between PPL and RSA, using in conjunction spectroscopic and computational techniques. ...The molecular docking described the microenvironment of the interaction sites, rich in apolar residues. The stability of the RSA-PPL complex was checked by molecular dynamics..." see full publication

7 august 2018 -- Senolytic activity of piperlongumine analogues: Synthesis and biological evaluation

"...Selective clearance of senescent cells (SCs) has emerged as a potential therapeutic approach for age-related diseases, as well as chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced adverse effects. Through a cell-based phenotypic screening approach, we recently identified piperlongumine (PL), a dietary natural product, as a novel senolytic agent, referring to small molecules that can selectively kill SCs over normal or non-senescent cells. In an effort to establish the structure-senolytic activity relationships of PL analogues, we performed a series of structural modifications on the trimethoxyphenyl and the α,β-unsaturated δ-valerolactam rings of PL. We show that modifications on the trimethoxyphenyl ring are well tolerated, while the Michael acceptor on the lactam ring is critical for the senolytic activity. Replacing the endocyclic C2-C3 olefin with an exocyclic methylene at C2 render PL analogues 47-49 with increased senolytic activity. These α-methylene containing analogues are also more potent than PL in inducing ROS production in WI-38 SCs. Similar to PL, 47-49 reduce the protein levels of oxidation resistance 1 (OXR1), an important oxidative stress response protein that regulates the expression of a variety of antioxidant enzymes, in cells. This study represents a useful starting point toward the discovery of senolytic agents for therapeutic uses...

Piperlongumine Analog 49  Molecular Struture

Lead Compound 49 has a 12-fold increase in potency compared with piperlongumine (PL)

....These α-methylene containing PL analogues strongly induce ROS production in SCs, which could be partially attributed to their ability of lowering the protein levels of OXR1, a potential target of PL and an important oxidative stress response protein that regulates the expression of a variety of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, lead compound 49, which has a 12-fold increase in potency when compared with PL, selectively induces apoptosis in SCs. Further analogue development and in vitro and in vivo characterization of novel analogues are in progress...."see full publication


Anti-Aging and Senolytics Home Page

  • What is Anti-Aging Medicine
  • What is Senescence?
  • What are Senolytics?
  • About Caloric Restriction
  • Mtor and Rapamycin
  • The IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway in aging
  • Exercise and Anti-Aging
  • Meditation and Anti-Aging


RAPAMYCIN ---The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has a central role in cell activation...

METFORMIN -- The diabetes drug metformin used by some for anti-aging may diminish benefits of aerobic exercise...

QUERCETIN-- AND WITH DASATINIB--The senolytic cocktail, dasatinib plus quercetin, which causes selective elimination of senescent cells...

FISETIN--Of the 10 flavonoids tested, fisetin was the most potent senolytic...

EGCG- The most active component of green tea....

NAD BOOSTERS --'...The cells of the old mice were indistinguishable from the young mice, after just one week of treatment...

SULFORAPHANE-- An isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables activates antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses by ...

UROLITHIN --Metabolite of Pomegranate compound with anti-aging effects passes human trial...

MITO-Q -- A water soluble fomr of CoQ10 that has excellent absorption and high bioavailability...

HONOKIOL - A bioactive natural product derived from Magnolia Bark have demonstrated ...

CURCUMIN AND ANALOGS -Recent research is focused on the design and synthesis of curcumin analogs as antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory agents...

BERBERINE --berberine has recently been reported to expand life span in Drosophila melanogaster, and attenuate premature cellular senescence

N-ACETYL-CYSTINE (NAC)--"...pretreatment with NAC increased glutathione levels in the older cells and largely helped offset that level of cell death..."

PIPERLONGUMINE - A natural product from the Long pepper with high bioavailability...

RESVERATROL AND PTEROTSILBINE -- Pterostilben chemically similar to resveratrol bute differs from resveratrol by exhibiting increased bioavailability (80% compared to 20% in resveratrol)

SPERMIDINE--Spermidine delays aging in humans ...

ALLICIN -- Allicin is a compound produced when garlic is crushed or chopped. ...

VITAMIN D3 -- Production of the active forms of Vitamin D are reduced by 50% as a result of an age-related decline

VITAMIN K-- evidence suggests vitamin K has an anti-inflammatory action

TOCOTRIENOL(AND WITH QUERCETIN) --Tocotrieniols have been found to exert a synergistic antitumor effect on cancer cells when given in combination....

HSP-90 INHIBITORS --As a novel class of senolytics

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